There are three type of blood transfusion thus :
- Autologous blood transfusion (ABT)
- Exchange blood transfusion (EBT)
- Donor-recipient blood transfusion
Autologous blood transfusion (ABT)
From the word ‘’Autologous” which means derived from the same individual ,This involves the collection and infusion of the patient’s own blood prior to any surgery or therapy.This method may be an acceptable alternative to blood transfusion for Jehovah’s Witnesses with a low or no risk specific advantage of transmission of viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis.This method reduces the cost and time of further pre-transfusion testing such as crossmatch and blood grouping and there is no risk of a haemolytic reaction .ABT involves collection of blood prior to surgery, or intraoperative salvage involving special recovery systems. These techniques however, are relatively uncommon and unlikely to replace the existing system of blood donation. Human recombinant erythropoietin is another alternative to blood transfusion and is currently being evaluated as a means of reducing the need for blood transfusion in some anaemic patients and for increasing the amount of autologous blood that can be collected prior to elective surgery.
Types of Autologous Blood transfusion
- Predeposit Autologous Blood Transfusion : Here,the patient donates about 2-5 units of his blood at approximately weekly intervals before any elective surgery. Unfortunately this type of autologous blood transfusion cannot be done in emergency cases.
- Preoperative haemodilution: Here 1 or 2 units of blood are removed from the patient just before the surgery and is being re-transfused to replace any blood loss while carrying out the surgical operation.
- Blood salvage: In this type, the blood that is lost during or after surgery may be collected using special techniques and re-transfused to the patient. Several techniques of varying levels of sophistication are available. The operative site must totally free of bacteria, bowel contents and tumor cells (Done aseptically)
Demand for pre-deposit autologous blood transfusion in the United Kingdom is not much as blood is generally perceived as being ‘safe’ and blood salvage is increasingly being used as a way of avoiding the use of donor blood, but in developing countries, autologous blood and blood from relatives are commonly used.
Exchange blood transfusion (EBT)
Exchange transfusion is a blood transfusion in which the patient’s blood or components of it are exchanged with (replaced by) other blood or blood products
This requires that the patient’s blood can be removed and replaced. In most cases, this involves placing one or more thin tubes, called catheters, into a blood vessel. The exchange transfusion is done in cycles: each one usually lasts a few minutes.
The patient’s blood is slowly withdrawn (usually about 5 to 20 mL at a time, depending on the patient’s size and the severity of illness) and a slightly larger amount of fresh, prewarmed blood or plasma flows into the patient’s body. This cycle is repeated until the correct volume of blood has been replaced.
After the exchange transfusion, the catheters may be left in place in case the procedure needs to be repeated any time.
This method is useful In diseases such as sickle cell anemia, where blood is removed and replaced with donor blood.
In other condition like as neonatal polycythemia, a specific amount of the child’s blood is removed then replaced with normal saline, blood plasma or an albumin solution. This decreases the total number of red blood cells in the body and makes it easier for blood to flow through the body
Some risk involved with Exchange blood transfusion
- Clotting of Blood
- A changes in blood chemical properties such as high or low potassium, low calcium, low glucose, change in the acid-base balance in the blood may also occur
- Lungs and Heart problems
- Infection (greatly decreased risk due to careful screening of blood)
- Shock may arise due to inadequate replacement of blood
Note that the patient may need to be monitored for several days in the hospital or clinic after the transfusion, but the length of stay generally depends on the condition for which the exchange transfusion was performed.
Donor-recipient blood transfusion
This involve the donation of blood or blood component from a donor to a recipient.Here,blood is collected aseptically from a compatible blood donor and transfuse to a compatible recipient after.
This method requires proper screen of the donor to limit any possible infection or cross infection such as blood grouping,crossmatch,venereal diseases check up like HIV,Syphilis,Chlamydia,Hepatitis B,C etc.
This method is done in order to save life while replacing lost blood.