Immune system : Innate and adaptive

Innate and Acquired immunity

The term immunity was derived from the Latin word “immunis” (exempt), which originally referred to the protection from legal prosecution offered to the Roman senators during their tenures in office. The same term was later   adopted subsequently to designate the naturally acquired protection against diseases…

Difference Between Serum And Plasma

Blood plasma

For some scientists and medical students, the difference between serum and plasma is just nomenclature and colour. On more than once occasion we’ve had to ask the difference between Serum and Plasma, only to hear, “either one” or “aren’t they the same thing?”  Let us…

Types of agglutination reactions and Prozone phenomenon

Types of agglutination reactions and Prozone phenomenon MLTGEEKS

Agglutination is one of the antigen and specific antibody reactions that occur when the two are mixed in vitro in the laboratory in the presence of electrolytes at a suitable temperature and pH. Agglutination is from the Latin word ” agglutinare,” meaning ” to glue,”…

Immunoglobulins (Properties,Structure and Functions)

Immunoglobulin MLTGEEKS

When foreign bodies or antigens enters the body and blood stream,the immune system activates or produces antibodies in serum and body fluids and these antibodies react with antigens. The sera with high antibody levels after infection or immunization is called the immune sera.The term immunoglobulin…

Widal Slide and tube test principle and result interpretation

Widal test MLTGEEKS

Widal test  was developed by F Widal in 1896 and is a serological method for diagnosing enteric or typhoid fever (blood test for typhoid) caused by infection with pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C.These microorganisms are transmitted to the…

Latex cryptococcus antigen test (CrAg) principle and result interpretation

Cryptococcus antigen test MLTGEEKS

The LATEX-CRYPTOCOCCUS ANTIGEN TEST (CrAg) is a simple and rapid latex test (lateral flow immunoassay test also exist) for the semi-quantitative or qualitative detection of the capsular polysaccharide antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid (cryptococcal meningitis or cryptomeningitis) and serum.Cryptococcal antigen latex test and…

VDRL Flocculation test for the detection of non-treponemal antibodies

VDRL-Test

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted (venereal) disease caused by the spirochaete named Treponema pallidum. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test abbreviated vdrl test is a syphilis serology blood test and was developed by Harris, Rosenberg, and Riedel in 1946.During this test reagins, the non-treponemal antibody…

CRP Latex Test Princple and Interpretation(Qualitative and Quantitative)

CRP TEST KIT MLTGEEKS

CRP LATEX TEST  is a qualitative screening and semi-quantitative determination of C-Reactive Protein antibodies (CRP) in serum.C-RP usually appears in the sera of patients in the acute stages of a number of inflammatory conditions such as most viral and some bacteria infections; rheumatoid arthritis, acute…

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis Technique Principle and Interpretation

Counter current immunoeletropheresis Principle mltgeeks

The countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis is a modification of immunoelectrophoresis in which antigen and antibody migrate towards opposite directions and form a visible white precipitate in the area between the wells. Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis is  also known as voltage facilitated double immunodiffusion because the migration of antigen and…

Rheumatoid arthritis test to detect the presence of Rheumatoid Factors

Rheumatoid Arthritis test kit MLTGEEKS

Rheumatoid arthritis abbreviated RA is a chronic and inflammatory (inflammatory arthritis) disease of flexible (synovial) joints (joint pain). During this disorder, the synovial lymphocytes produces an abnormal Immunoglobulin G and in response to this the host immune system generates Immunoglobulin M and these are called…