Robertson’s Cooked Meat (RCM) Medium ideal for the culture of fastidious anaerobic bacteria

Cooked meat medium MLTGEEKS

Cooked meat medium( rcm media) is a types of culture media which was was originally developed by Robertson  for the cultivation of aerobes and anaerobes in particular pathogenic clostridia species and for the maintenance of stock cultures.The present formulation is recommended by BIS for the…

Immunoglobulins (Properties,Structure and Functions)

Immunoglobulin MLTGEEKS

When foreign bodies or antigens enters the body and blood stream,the immune system activates or produces antibodies in serum and body fluids and these antibodies react with antigens. The sera with high antibody levels after infection or immunization is called the immune sera.The term immunoglobulin…

comprehensive stool analysis (Macroscopic,Microscopic and Concentration techniques)

Stool analysis MLTGEEKS

Stool testing or stool examination is performed in laboratories for different diagnostic purposes.It is a specimen that is easily obtained, but it can be a reluctance on the part of the patient to provide the stool specimen because of it’s offensive nature and foul smell.In…

Field Stain principle,composition,procedure and interpretation (test to detect malaria)

FIELD STAIN MLTGEEKS

Field’s Stain is a histological staining techniques and romanowsky stain, used for rapid processing of blood specimens and is used to stain thick and thin film (thick film vs thin film) of blood to detect spirochaetes, protozoa and other purposes.It consists of two differential stain.Field…

R.B.C. Diluting Fluid (Hayem’s) Principle,Procedures and Calculation

R.B.C. Diluting Fluid (Hayem's) MLTGEEKS

It is used as diluent for blood samples to count red blood cells under high power using a manual cell counter or cell counting chamber such as neubauer chamber cell count Principle of  Hayem’s fluid RBC dilution fluid is isotonic with blood, so there is no hemolysis. Normal…

Schaeffer & Fulton’s Spore Stain principle,procedure and result (endospore stain)

Schaeffer & Fulton's Spore Stain MLTGEEKS

Schaeffer & Fulton’s Spore Stain is a microbiological stain used for staining bacterial spores.A spore is a dormant form of a bacterium that allows it to survive in drastic environmental conditions. Spores have a tough external cover made of protein keratin that is resistant to…

Widal Slide and tube test principle and result interpretation

Widal test MLTGEEKS

Widal test  was developed by F Widal in 1896 and is a serological method for diagnosing enteric or typhoid fever (blood test for typhoid) caused by infection with pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C.These microorganisms are transmitted to the…

R2A Agar principle and cultural response (ideal for water treatment)

R2a Agar MLTGEEKS

Reasoner’s 2A agar is used for the heterotrophic plate count of treated potable water using longer incubation periods.The heterotrophic plate count (HPC), formerly known as the standard plate count is a procedure for estimating the number of live heterotrophic bacteria in water and measuring changes…

How to prepare Blood and Chocolate agar using Columbia Agar base

Columbia agar MLTGEEKS

Columbia Agar Base is used as an efficient base for the preparation of culture media like blood and chocolate agar .It is also used for the preparation of various selective and differential media and for the isolation of most fastidious organisms from clinical and non…

Types,Principle and applications of electrophoresis

Electrophoresis MLTGEEKS

Electrophoresis is the movement of particles under spatially uniform electric field in a fluid. In the year 1807,Ferdinand Frederic Reuss observed clay  particles dispersed in water migrating at a constant electric field.This was caused by a charged interface between the particle surface and the surrounding…