Semen Analysis: Sperm Counting Test Procedure and Results

Semen Analysis: Sperm Counting Test Procedure and Results

Semen analysis provides essential information on the individual’s clinical status. Clearly, the collection and analysis of semen must be carried out using properly standardized procedures if the results are to provide valid information.Normal semen is a mixture of…

Papanicolaou stain : Principle ,Procedure and Result Interpretation

Papanicolaou stains : Principle ,Procedure and Interpretation

Papanicolaou stains are used to differentiate cells in smear preparations of various body secretions. Pap stain is a very reliable technique. As such, it is used for cervical cancer screening.Malignant cells are generally characterized by relatively large nuclei…

Pneumocystis jiroveci Laboratory Diagnosis

Pneumocystis jiroveci Laboratory Diagnosis

Pneumocystis jiroveci is common in many parts of the world. Particularly in United States, Asia and Europe. The route of organism transmission is believed to be through the transfer of pulmonary droplets by direct person- to- person contact.The…

Minerals : Their Functions,Sources and Deficiency

Minerals Functions,Sources and Deficiency

Minerals are essential for the normal growth and maintenance of the body. If the daily requirement is more than 100 mg / day, they are called major elements and if the daily requirements is less than 100 mg…

Cryptosporidium parvum laboratory diagnosis

Cryptosporidium parvum laboratory diagnosis

Cryptosporidium is distributed worldwide.Of the 20 species that are known to exist, only Cryptosporidium parvum infects human beings.Infection appears to occur primarily through water or food contaminated with infected feces and through transmission from person to person.Immunocompromised persons…

Toxoplasma gondii laboratory diagnosis

Toxoplasma gondii laboratory diagnosis

Toxoplasma gondii is found worldwide, mainly because so many animals can harbor the organism.Information collected to date indicates that no population is exempt from the possibility of contracting Toxoplasmosis.One of the most important populations at risk of contracting…

Wuchereria bancrofti Laboratory Diagnosis

Wuchereria bancrofti Laboratory Diagnosis

Wuchereria bancrofti can be found in the subtropical and tropical areas of the world.These include Central Africa, the Nile Delta, India, Pakistan, Thailand, the Arabian Coast, the Philippines, Japan, Korea and China in the Eastern Hemisphere and Haiti,…

ELECTROLYTES AND BLOOD GASES ANALYSIS

Blood gases and electrolytes analysis

Electrolytes are charged particles (ions) dissolved in different fluid compartments (intravascular, interstitial and intracellular) of the body and perform a variety of functions in the human body.The clinical important electrolytes are: sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen and bicarbonate.Because hydrogen…

artifacts and confusers in Parasitological samples

Artifacts and confusers in Parasitology

There are a number of structures close to parasites, but in reality they are not.These structures, known as artifacts and confusers in parasitology, are mainly found in samples of stools and blood.Such stool artifacts and confusers can be caused…

Trichinella spiralis larva encysted in muscle

Trichinella spiralis Laboratory diagnosis

With the exception of the tropics, where reports are rare, Trichinella spiralis can be found worldwide, especially among members of the meat – eating population. This organism can be found in a number of different animals, including pig,…