Ascaris lumbricoides Morphology, life cycle, diagnosis and Treatment


Ascaris Lumbricoides is a Nematode sometimes considered as the ‘’large worm” of human capable of growing to a length of up to 35 cm. These large roundworms are the most common parasitic worm in humans. They are responsible for the disease term Ascariasis which is…

Acid Fast Bacilli Ziehl Neelsen staining technique Principle, Procedure and reporting


Acid-fastness  refers to  a physical property of certain bacterial or group of bacteria and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures found in a organism, which makes it resistant to decolorization by the acid alcohol during laboratory staining procedures Acid-fast organisms are characterized by…

Acid Fast organisms not Always Mycobacterium species


Nowaday,when we hear of acid fast organism,we primarily think of Mycobacterium species such as tuberculosis,leprae etc.           Acid-fast organisms such as members of the genus Mycobacterium are  differentiated and identify using an acid fast stain such as Ziehl Neelsen stain Acid-fastness  refers…

Diagnostic Enzymology (How to calculate enzyme activity)


Enzymes plays a vital role in catalyzing biochemical reactions reaction which are necessary for normal human growth,maturation and reproduction. Diagnostic enzymology  involves the measurement of enzymes activities in body fluids in order to diagnose a disease.In most cases,serum or blood are the most useful samples…

How to extract your own DNA at Home

DNA extraction

The  DNA is the genetic material of all living organisms. Within this master molecule,Whether double stranded or single stranded, all the information necessary to create and direct the chemical machinery of life is found. Before being able to study DNA in the context of a…

Plasma proteins function and clinical significance

Plasma protein MLT GEEKS

Plasma proteins are proteins that are synthesized in the hepatocytes or liver cells and release in the blood plasma except immunoglobulins. Plasma proteins plays a vital role in the body metabolism being part of blood,they moves from vessels to organs supplying their functions.Below are the…

LACTOBACILLI MRS AGAR Principle, Composition, Preparation and Colonies Characteristics

lactobacillus casei on Lactobacilli agar MLT GEEKS

De Man, Rogosa & Sharpe, originally developed M.R.S in 1960; It is an alternative non-selective suitable media for most fastidious lactic acid bacteria and is a substitute for Tomato Juice Agar. Lactobacillus MRS is a growth medium recommended for the growth of all Lactobacillus species….

Motility Indole Urea Principle, Composition, Preparation and Colony Characteristics

Motility indole urea test MLTGEEKS

Abbreviated (MIU), Motility Indole Urea Medium base is used for the differentiation of Enterobacteriaceae. This medium is based on motility, urease and indole production. This medium contains peptones that provide carbon and nitrogen required for growth of bacteria. Urea provides a source of nitrogen for…

Acetate differential Agar principle and interpretation of test

Acetate utilization test MLTGEEKS

Trabulsi and Ewing first formulated acetate Differential Agar. Tatum, Ewing and Weaver later on modified the medium by replacing sodium citrate by sodium acetate, which enables the differentiation of Shigella species from Escherichia coli. Organic acids have been used widely as an aid in the…

Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) Agar- Principle, Composition, Preparation and Colony Characteristics

Salmonella-Typhimurium on XLD agar MLTGEEKS

Abbreviated XLD agar, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar is another selective  and differential growth  medium mostly used in the isolation of Salmonella  and Shigella species from clinical and non clinical samples. It has a pH of approximately 7.4 that gives it a bright pink or red appearance due to the indicator phenol red It is…