Immune system : Innate and adaptive

Innate and Acquired immunity

The term immunity was derived from the Latin word “immunis” (exempt), which originally referred to the protection from legal prosecution offered to the Roman senators during their tenures in office. The same term was later   adopted subsequently to designate the naturally acquired protection against diseases…

Vitamin A: Functions, Deficiency and Toxicity

Good sources of Vitamin A

follow site Vitamin A belongs to the fat soluble vitamins. Its active form is present only in animal tissues meanwhile the pro-vitamin, beta-carotene is present in plant tissues. Beta carotene is made up of two beta ionone rings which are connected by a polyprenoid chain. Theoretically, one…

Tomato Juice Broth: Principle and Composition

Tomato Juice Broth

Tomato juice broth used in Lactobacilli culture media was first described by Mickle and Breed. Kulp noted the ability of tomato juice to improve the recovery of Lactobacilli which is now recommended for yeast and other aciduric microorganism’s culture. Composition of Tomato Juice Broth Ingredients…

Culture methods in Microbiology

In Microbiology laboratory, Culture methods are very crucial as it increases the chances of multiplication and identification of microorganism. The following are various reasons for culturing microorganisms in the laboratory: Isolate bacteria in pure culture and identify the same by performing various tests. In order…

3 Functions Of The Kidneys You Need to Know Now

The-Kidney-and-Nephron

In the urinary system, the two kidneys form and secretes urine by peristalsis. Urine is conveyed from each kidneys into the urinary bladder. This provides temporary storage for about 300 ml urine which is eventually voided to the exterior through the urethra. Where Is The…

Difference Between Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins

Fruits and their vitamin content

Vitamins can be defined as organic compounds occurring in small quantities in different natural foods and are necessary for growth and maintenance of good health. Vitamins can also be defined as essential food factors, which are required for the proper utilization of food such as…

Difference Between Serum And Plasma

Blood plasma

For some scientists and medical students, the difference between serum and plasma is just nomenclature and colour. On more than once occasion we’ve had to ask the difference between Serum and Plasma, only to hear, “either one” or “aren’t they the same thing?”  Let us…

Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems

cells tissues organs and systems

Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems made up the 4 level of organisation of an organism. A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of a living organism. Bacteria are unicellular consisting of a single cell. Human are multicellular. A group of similar cells having…

How to decalcify tissues for Histopathological processing

Bone for Decalcification

The presence of calcium salts in tissues makes them difficult. This causes knife damage, tissue cutting difficulty. Calcium may also be present in normal tissues under pathological conditions such as necrotic tissue in tuberculosis. Decalcification is the process of removing calcium salts Why is Decalcificaition…

Entamoeba coli infection and treatment

Entamoeba coli one small one large cyst iodine

Entamoeba coli can be found worldwide.It is a non pathogenic species of Entamoeba causing Intestinal amebiasis, amebic colitis, amebic dysentery, extraintestinal amebiasis.It’s occurs in cold climates, such as Alaska, as well as warm climates.Geographic areas with poor hygiene and sanitation practices are at the greatest…